Apakah Osama Bin Laden Mengakui Serangan 11 September, dan Apakah Dia Meninggal Dalam Tahun 2001?
(Did Osama bin Laden Confess to the 9/11 Attacks, and Did He Die, in 2001?)
by Prof David Ray Griffin
In 2009, I published a little book entitled Osama bin Laden: Dead or Alive?1 Much evidence, I showed, suggested that Osama bin Laden had died on or about December 13, 2001. (Although this book was ignored by the US press, it received major reviews in British newspapers,2 and it even provided the basis for a BBC special.3) Pointing out that the only evidence to the contrary consists of "messages from bin Laden" in the form of audiotapes and videotapes that have appeared since 2001, I devoted one chapter to an examination of the most important of these tapes, showing that none are demonstrably authentic and that some are almost certainly fakes.
In the chapter preceding that examination, I discussed two videotapes containing purported interviews of Osama bin Laden in the fall of 2001, when the issue was whether he had been responsible for the 9/11 attacks. I suggested that both of these tapes, in which bin Laden allegedly admitted his responsibility, were fakes. If they were, I pointed out, this fact would increase the likelihood that all of the "Osama bin Laden tapes" appearing in the following years – when the question of whether he was still alive was added to that of his responsibility for 9/11 – were also fakes.
The clearest example, I argued, was the most famous of the so-called bin Laden confession videos. Having allegedly been found in a private home in Jalalabad, Afghanistan, in late November 2001, it is sometimes called the "November 9 bin Laden video," because this date was stamped on it, implying that this was when it was made. It is also called the "bin Laden video of December 13," because that was the date on which it was released to the public by the Pentagon – which is perhaps significant, given the evidence that bin Laden may have died on that day. (If he had, he would have obviously, and perhaps conveniently, been unable to comment on whether the tape was authentic.) In any case, I provided several reasons for concluding that this video was almost certainly fabricated.
I also suggested, with greater tentativeness, that another pre-2002 video had been fabricated. This one had been described in a November 11, 2001, article in London's Telegraph by David Bamber entitled "Bin Laden: Yes, I Did It." According to Bamber, the Telegraph had on the previous day "obtained access" to a video in which "Osama bin Laden has for the first time admitted that his al-Qa'eda group carried out the [9/11] attacks." Bamber added that this video, which would "form the centrepiece of Britain and America's new evidence against bin Laden," was going to be released to the public on November 14.4
When November 14 came, however, British Prime Minister Tony Blair said that his government did not actually have the video or even a complete transcript. But his government released quotations said to be "extracts" from it – quotations that were widely regarded as confirming Bamber's assertion that bin Laden, when asked about 9/11, had in effect replied: "I did it."
Saying that it was "hard to know what to make of this episode," I argued that, if both the Telegraph and "intelligence sources" had copies of such a video, then Blair's government would surely also have a copy. And if it did have a video in which bin Laden had for the first time confessed his responsibility for the 9/11 attacks, Blair's government – which at the time was encountering much skepticism from the Muslim world about bin Laden's responsibility for those attacks – would surely have released it.
Or, I added, Blair's government would have done this "unless the video was a fake and the government decided, between November 11 and 14, that the fakery was so obvious that it should deny having a copy while merely releasing damning 'excerpts.'"5
Then, while pointing out that "[t]his explanation is . . . merely one possibility among many," I added two further factors supporting the "suspicion that a fake 'bin Laden confession video' had been made": Blair had recently tried but failed (as the BBC pointed out) to provide convincing evidence of bin Laden's responsibility for the 9/11 attacks; and Blair was getting ready to announce emergency powers to override human rights legislation in order to imprison suspected terrorists.6
There was only one problem with my argument: I had somehow missed news stories revealing that the reported video was a tape of an hour-long interview of bin Laden that, after being recorded on October 21 by Al Jazeera's Kabul correspondent, Tayseer Allouni, was not aired by Al Jazeera.7 This fact, not being generally known at the time, was not mentioned in news reports appearing during the following month. On December 12, however, the New York Times reported that Blair had been referring to an Al Jazeera interview.8 And then CNN, which had an affiliate agreement with Al Jazeera, aired several minutes of this interview on January 31, 2002, after which, on February 5, it posted the entire transcript online.9
My speculation that the tape reported by Blair might have been a fake was, therefore, baseless, reflecting research that was, to say the least, inadequate.
This fact was recently pointed out in a critique of my book by Maher Osseiran entitled "Osama bin Laden, Dead or Alive? An Irrelevant Question Asked by David Ray Griffin."10 Osseiran's article contained four criticisms:
Although I agree with Osseiran's second criticism, I disagree with the other three. I will discuss his four criticisms in the above order (which is the order in which he introduced them).
Criticism #1: The Question of Whether Bin Laden Died in 2001 Is Irrelevant
In explaining the claim that he considered important enough to put in the title of his critique – that it is irrelevant whether bin Laden is dead or alive - Osseiran said that my book was based on an "irrational rationale," namely:
Osseiran did not, however, quote any statement to show that I hold any such belief – which is understandable, because I have never made any such statement. Having no idea why Osseiran attributed such an absurd belief to me, I will simply move on to his reason for calling the question of bin Laden's continued existence irrelevant:
I agree that civilian and military leaders would seek to justify their current war policies even if they had to admit that Osama bin Laden was dead. But Osseiran's claim – that US policy makers could "easily" deal with convincing evidence of bin Laden's death, so that such evidence would be irrelevant – is surely wrong, for several reasons.
First, it is widely recognized that a crusade against an allegedly evil government or movement can more easily garner support insofar as that government or movement has a leader who can be portrayed as extraordinarily evil.
Since 9/11, Osama bin Laden has been thus portrayed by American leaders. For example, after skeptics had questioned the authenticity of the video released December 13, 2001, in which the bin Laden figure clearly took responsibility for the 9/11 attacks, President Bush said that those who considered this video a fake were simply hoping for the best about "an incredibly evil man."11 Bush's press secretary, Ari Fleischer, said: "Everybody knows how evil Osama bin Laden is."12 A Reuters article in 2002 said: "Bush constantly described the Saudi-born militant as an incarnation of evil."13 In an essay entitled "Constructing an Evil Genius," Samuel Winch, a professor of communications and the humanities, wrote: "Osama bin Laden was framed in news media reports from 1999 through 2002 as an evil genius . . . very similar to the fictional villain Dr. Fu-Manchu, a Victorian horror novel character."14 The loss of such a figure would be far from insignificant.
In the second place, President Obama has greatly intensified the focus on bin Laden. Back in November 2008, when Barack Obama was still the president-elect, one of his advisers said of bin Laden: "This is our enemy, and he should be our principal target."15 Shortly after he assumed the presidency, Obama himself, having been asked how important it was to apprehend bin Laden, said:
In June 2009, a UPI story said:
Three months later, a news report based on statements from Obama's senior counterterrorism advisor, John Brennan, was entitled: "US Says Hunt Still on for Bin Laden."18 In December 2009, Obama's military commander in Afghanistan, General Stanley McChrystal, referred to bin Laden as an "iconic figure . . . whose survival emboldens al-Qaeda as a franchising organization across the world."19
Because the Obama administration has said not only that the main reason we are in Afghanistan is to prevent al-Qaeda from attacking America again, but also that al-Qaeda will remain an especially dangerous threat as long as its "iconic" leader is still alive, the acknowledged death of that leader would surely undermine the administration's public rationale for remaining in Afghanistan.
Moreover, bin Laden is relevant to the war rationale – to give a third reason why acknowledgment of his death could not be easily absorbed - not only because of his presumed survival but also because of his presumed location. The Afghan war has increasingly become the "Af-Pak" war, because of increased US military operations inside of Pakistan, and these operations have been largely justified on the basis of "intelligence" that bin Laden, along with other al-Qaeda leaders, is there. In President Obama's March 2009 speech in which he laid out a "new strategy for Afghanistan and Pakistan," he said:
In light of such assertions, a widespread agreement that bin Laden was no longer with us would severely undermine the Obama administration's professed rationale for the expansion of the war into Pakistan, thereby further increasing opposition to the Af-Pak war among the press and the public.
Whereas these first three points are more than sufficient to refute the claim that the question posed by my book is irrelevant, the most decisive reason is a fourth: The book's argument, to recall, was not merely that bin Laden is probably dead but also that he has probably been in this state since mid-December 2001. If this is true and were to become publicly acknowledged, the dozens of "messages from Osama bin Laden" that have appeared since 2001 would be exposed as fakes. People in America and around the world would, therefore, realize that some organization had been fabricating these tapes for the purpose of deceiving them into thinking that bin Laden was still alive.
If it were to be learned, moreover, that these tapes had been fabricated by the Pentagon, as part of its "psyops" (psychological operations), then the military leaders who had authorized their creation would be exposed as guilty of breaking the law prohibiting the US military from directing propaganda at the American people. Questions as to why they did this – questions that would likely lead to answers involving the "military-industrial complex" – would probably follow. A lot of people would not like such questions to be raised.
In light of these considerations, Osseiran's first criticism is clearly false. I turn now to his second.
Criticism #2: The Video Mentioned by Tony Blair in November 2001 Is Authentic
As I have already indicated, I agree with this criticism, along with Osseiran's further point that I should have known that the bin Laden interview to which Blair referred was one that had been videotaped by Al Jazeera but then not aired.21 Now that I am aware of these stories, I am mystified as to how I could have missed them.22
The fact that the video was authentic does not, however, undermine my contention, argued in other writings, that there is no good evidence that bin Laden had planned or even specifically authorized the 9/11 attacks.23 Osseiran's contrary view may be based in part on the assumption that bin Laden confessed responsibility for these attacks during the Al Jazeera interview.
This assumption was, in any case, widely expressed when the tape was first reported. As pointed out above, Telegraph writer David Bamber, in speaking of the importance of this video, said: "Osama bin Laden has for the first time admitted that his al-Qa'eda group carried out the [9/11] attacks." The Telegraph itself supported this view with the title it put on the article: "Bin Laden: Yes, I Did It."24 Prime Minister Tony Blair then endorsed this interpretation a few days later by claiming that bin Laden had, during the interview, said that he had "instigated" the 9/11 attacks.25 It was, in fact, these descriptions of the tape's content that made me suspect it to be a fabrication.
The idea that bin Laden had in this interview admitted responsibility for the 9/11 attacks was, in any case, also promoted by CNN on January 31, 2002, when it aired a portion of the interview. After bin Laden was shown saying – in response to the American claim that he was responsible for 9/11 – that the description of him as a terrorist was unwarranted, CNN commentator Wolf Blitzer said: "That may sound like a denial but listen to what he says only moments later." CNN then showed footage of bin Laden saying: "If inciting people to do that is terrorism and if killing those who kill our sons is terrorism, then let history be witness that we are terrorists."26
After the entire transcript was published, Sarah Sullivan of Turner Broadcasting System gave the same interpretation, writing: "The transcript of the interview makes bin Laden's defense of Sept. 11 and implicit acknowledgement of responsibility even clearer than the excerpts broadcast by CNN."27
Not all journalists, however, described this interview as one in which bin Laden had acknowledged responsibility, even implicitly, for the 9/11 attacks. Guardian writer Oliver Burkeman, for example, said that bin Laden "dodges questions about his responsibility for the September 11 attacks, but says they were justified."28
A close examination of the transcript shows, moreover, that bin Laden did not even dodge the question. Rather, he simply made the same twofold point about the attacks that he had previously articulated – namely, that he rejoiced in the attacks but had not been responsible for them or even known about them in advance.
On September 12, for example, this twofold point was made on bin Laden's behalf by one of his aides, who told Al Jazeera that bin Laden had had "no information or knowledge about the attack" but that he had "thanked Almighty Allah and bowed before him when he heard this news."29 Continuing to deny responsibility in the following days, bin Laden himself told Al Jazeera on September 16: "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation."30 On October 7, he praised the "vanguards of Islam . . . [who] destroyed America," but he did not withdraw his earlier statements denying involvement.31
During the Al Jazeera interview of October 21, bin Laden made this same twofold point. On the one hand, he expressed his approval of the attacks in New York and Washington, calling them "great on all levels" and saying, in particular, that "the collapse of the twin towers is huge." On the other hand, he denied responsibility. After saying that the designation of him as a terrorist was unwarranted, he responded to the American government's claim that it had convincing evidence of his complicity in the attacks by stating: "We never heard in our lives a court decision to convict someone based on a 'secret' proof it has. The logical thing to do is to present a proof to a court of law."32
At this point, however, bin Laden did - contrary to Al Jazeera's statement that there was nothing new in this interview - go beyond what he had previously said in public statements: Having denied direct responsibility for the attacks, he suggested that he might have been indirectly responsible. Speaking of "the brave guys who took the battle to the heart of America and destroyed its most famous economic and military landmarks," bin Laden said:
His point was that he had encouraged ("agitated for") Muslims to strike back at Americans and Israelis, as an act of self-defense against their attacks on Muslim holy places and people. This striking back was self-defense, he argued, because Americans and Israelis would quit killing Muslims only if Muslims killed enough of them in return to make them stop: Having spoken of the killing of Muslims in Palestine and Iraq, where "more than 1 million children died . . . and others are still dying," bin Laden said: "If they kill our women and our innocent people, we will kill their women and their innocent people until they stop."
Making still clearer the sense in which he might be given some credit for 9/11, he said: "We have agitated for this [an attack on America] for years and we have issued statements and fatwas to that effect." He then referred to an event in Saudi Arabia in which four young men, who had been "influenced by some of the fatwas and statements that we issued," had destroyed "an American center." Bin Laden then commented: "If they mean . . . that there is a link as a result of our incitement, then it is true. . . . We have incited battle against Americans and Jews. This is true."34
In other words, just as bin Laden was not involved in planning the attack on the American center in Saudi Arabia, but was indirectly responsible for it in the sense that the four young attackers were "incited" by his fatwas against America, he may also have been indirectly responsible for the 9/11 attacks. It is in this sense that we should understand the passage of his interview quoted by Blitzer:
To summarize: Having denied that he was a "terrorist" in the sense of having planned or specifically authorized the 9/11 attacks, Osama bin Laden added that, if the word "terrorist" is used (unreasonably) for Muslims who strike back at America in self-defense, or who encourage fellow Muslims to do so, then he and the "brave guys" who attacked America on 9/11 are indeed terrorists.
I am grateful to Osseiran for pointing out the existence of the Al Jazeera interview, thereby giving me the opportunity to provide this analysis of it. By showing the falsity of the widespread assumption that bin Laden confessed direct responsibility for the 9/11 attacks in this interview, this analysis strengthens the case against the authenticity of the tape released December 13, in which the bin Laden figure claimed to have been directly involved in planning the 9/11 attacks.
To explain: If bin Laden during his Al Jazeera interview had expressed direct responsibility for those attacks, then it would not be surprising if he had also done so in a private interview with a visiting sheikh (see the discussion below). But because bin Laden in the Al Jazeera interview once again denied responsibility for the attacks – except possibly in the indirect sense that his fatwas against America may have influenced the attackers – then the video released December 13, 2001, would, if authentic, be the one and only recording we have in which bin Laden claimed direct responsibility.36
I turn now, in any case, to Osseiran's critique of my book's treatment of this video.
Criticism #3: The Video Released December 13 Is Authentic
After showing that the tape had been widely used to confirm the US-British position that bin Laden had been responsible for the 9/11 attacks, I discussed several features of the tape that support the widespread view that it was a fake – that the bin Laden figure in it was not Osama bin Laden himself.
By calling this video a fake, Osseiran complained, I had "disregarded the truth" about it, which had been "pointed out to [me] on numerous occasions" – by which he meant that he had sent me several papers in which he had given an alternative theory of its creation.38
According to Osseiran's theory, the video was made during a CIA-arranged sting operation that took place on September 26, 2001, ten days before the US attack on Afghanistan. The operation was based around Khaled al-Harbi, a wheelchair-bound Saudi sheikh whom bin Laden trusted. Al-Harbi had traveled from Saudi Arabia to a small village in Afghanistan's Ghazni Province with two CIA operatives in order to have a conversation with bin Laden. The conversation between the two men was videotaped, but bin Laden did not know this. When he spoke of his responsibility for the 9/11 attacks, therefore, he did not realize that he would be confessing to the world.39
The videotaping of Osama bin Laden's confession was, according to Osseiran, the first part of a two-part sting operation. The second part was to kill or capture bin Laden. This could have been done right after the confession was taped, but the United States chose to postpone that part of the operation until later because, if bin Laden had been captured or killed at that time,
I am puzzled as to how Osseiran's believes this statement to be consistent with his claim that the question raised by the title of my book – namely, whether bin Laden is dead or alive – is irrelevant.
Be that as it may, the killing or capture of bin Laden, Osseiran suggested, was to be carried out when he came back to the village again, which turned out to be on November 2. The plan was for him to be killed or captured by US forces transported to the village in a helicopter. This plan was foiled, however, when the US helicopter, encountering bad weather, crashed, so that bin Laden remained free. Then on December 13, the US government, anxious to supply evidence of bin Laden's responsibility for 9/11, released the tape, thereby allowing him to realize that his security had been compromised. He hence went into hiding, never to be heard from again.
Even though this videotape provides the clearest evidence that bin Laden was directly involved in planning the 9/11 attacks, Osseiran says, and even though the US government could prove the tape's authenticity by explaining that it was produced during a CIA sting operation, it has refused to do this. Why? Because it does not want to admit that, although it could have killed or captured bin Laden on September 26, 2001, it did not, in order to retain its pretext for going to war. And to admit this would be to confess to treason.41
We can certainly admire Osseiran's passion to undermine the rationale for the Afghan war by getting his account accepted, and this account has an initial plausibility, partly because it provides an alternative explanation, as I will point out below, for some of the features of the videotape that have led many of us to consider it a fake.
But this appearance of plausibility disappears when one begins probing Osseiran's claim that the US operatives did not kill or capture bin Laden right after the tape was made because, had they done so, the American public would not have supported the invasion of Afghanistan. The problem with this claim is that the killing or capture of bin Laden would have undermined support for the invasion only if the American public knew about it, and his death or capture could have been concealed. After bin Laden had left the village, for example, US operatives could have secretly killed him and then buried his body where it could have been "discovered" later, after the goals of the invasion had been achieved. Alternatively, bin Laden could have been captured and held in secret custody until those goals were achieved, after which his freshly killed body could have been produced for all to see, along with a dramatic story about heroic US forces tracking him down and killing him. This could have been done, for example, just before the 2008 elections, giving Republicans a big boost.
There is, moreover, another problem with Osseiran's scenario: Although his hypothesis addresses some of the reasons I gave for believing the video to be a fake, it does not address all of them, including the most serious one. I will now summarize these reasons, pointing out in each case whether Osseiran's hypothesis can neutralize it.
Bin Laden Would Not Have Confessed in That Situation
In my book – in which I was assuming, for the sake of argument, the US view that bin Laden had been aware of the camera – I argued that he would have been most unlikely to confess responsibility to the 9/11 attacks. Even if he had been involved in planning the attacks, he would not have admitted this while the camera was running, given the fact that, until then, he had always publicly denied any involvement. For example, having been asked on September 28 whether he had been involved, bin Laden replied:
Having made that denial, bin Laden would not on November 9 – the date on which the US government claims this video was made – have confessed to the attacks with a camera running. To have done so would have been to show the world that his previous statement – in which he said that he, as a Muslim, tried to avoid lying – had itself been a lie.
Although this argument is not relevant to Osseiran's scenario, because he claims that bin Laden was unaware of the camera, his scenario faces an analogous problem: Given the fact that bin Laden had repeatedly denied in his public statements that he had been involved with the attacks, he surely – if he actually had been involved – would not have admitted this in front of anyone who might be untrustworthy. And yet, after saying that bin Laden was, out of caution, initially reluctant to talk about 9/11, Osseiran gives this explanation for why he finally did:
According to Osseiran, therefore, this was the situation. There were strangers in the room, and bin Laden had taken no precautions to make sure that his remarks were not being recorded. And yet he, in this situation, revealed his big secret. Is that not extremely implausible?
Bin Laden Appeared Too Healthy
In the last of the indubitably authentic bin Laden videos, which was made sometime between November 16 (when the bombing of Khost, which was mentioned on the tape, occurred) and December 27 (when the tape was publicly released), bin Laden had, in the words of London's Telegraph, a "gaunt, frail appearance" and his "beard was much whiter than on November 3," when the previous bin Laden video had been broadcast. Also, "bin Laden's left arm . . . hung limply by his side while he gesticulated with his right."43 Dr. Sanjay Gupta, CNN's medical correspondent, likewise commented on bin Laden's "grayness of beard, his paleness of skin, very gaunt sort of features," along with the fact that "[h]e never moved his left arm at all."44
In the video released December 13, by contrast, the bin Laden figure was rather well filled out, his skin and his beard were dark, and he was easily able to move both arms.
This contrast in appearance and ability formed a very strong argument against the government's account, according to which this was a tape of bin Laden that had been made on November 9. It would be hard to believe that bin Laden's appearance could have deteriorated so radically between November 9 and the day, sometime between November 16 and December 27, on which the tape of the "gaunt" bin Laden was made.
This argument does not apply against Osseiran's theory, however, because he believes that this tape was made on September 26, so there would have been between 50 and 90 days for bin Laden's appearance to have deteriorated before the "gaunt" video was made.
It is still the case, to be sure, that the bin Laden figure in the December 13-released video appears to be heavier than bin Laden as seen in the undoubtedly authentic videos made near September 26, when Osseiran believes that this one was made. But he would argue that this problem is solved by an analysis provided by Ed Haas, according to which the event was probably recorded in PAL video format, which is common in Pakistan and has a higher spatial resolution than the NTSC format, which is used in the United States. If so, the conversion from the PAL to the NTSC format could have resulted in "an image that appears to be 'squashed' along the vertical axis, making people and objects look fatter after the conversion."45
Different Facial Structure, with Differently Shaped Nose
I have no expertise in these matters, but if we assume, for the sake of discussion, that Haas's suggestion, combined with the proposed early recording date (September 26), could explain why the bin Laden figure in the video appears too healthy and heavy, there would still be problems with his physical appearance. One of these, as I pointed out, is that this man's nose does not seem to be shaped the same as that of Osama bin Laden.46 This differently shaped nose, moreover, seems to be simply one part of a differently shaped facial structure. As one can see by comparing an undoubtedly authentic image of bin Laden with the face of the man in the so-called confession video, the nose of the real bin Laden appears to be much longer47 – and it is hard to see how a video conversion that made a figure fatter by squashing it along the vertical axis could simultaneously make its nose appear longer.
So for Osseiran to make a convincing case, he would need to show that the conversion from the PAL to the NTSC format could also explain these differences.
Writing with the Right Hand
Another problem mentioned in my book that Osseiran, as far as I know, has not addressed is the fact that, in the video in question, the bin Laden figure writes with his right hand, whereas the FBI's webpage for "Usama bin Laden" as a "Most Wanted Terrorist" describes him as left-handed.48
This apparent anomaly cannot be explained, I pointed out, by supposing that his left arm was immobile – as it was in the post-November 16 video, which was released December 27 – because the bin Laden figure in this video easily raises his left hand above his head. This fact, of course, is not inconsistent with Osseiran's thesis, according to which the video was taped on September 26, which may well have been before bin Laden suffered the stroke or whatever it was that caused the immobility of his left arm that is apparent in the post-November 16 video.
However, Osseiran and other defenders of the authenticity of this video could overcome this problem if they could provide convincing evidence that the FBI was wrong – that Osama bin Laden was, in fact, right-handed.
Evidence for this contention was provided in late 2009, in fact, in Growing Up Bin Laden, a book that Jean Sasson co-authored with Osama bin Laden's first wife, Najwa bin Laden, and his fourth son, Omar bin Laden. According to Omar, his father was actually right-handed. Here is his statement:
If this claim is true, then the FBI was wrong to describe bin Laden as left-handed.
Certain facts about both Jean Sasson and Omar bin Laden, however, should lead us to be suspicious of this claim.
Jean Sasson: To put it bluntly, Jean Sasson is simply not a trustworthy author. John R. MacArthur, the publisher of Harper's magazine, has called her "a propagandist for hire."50 The occasion for this description was Sasson's 1991 book, The Rape of Kuwait, which rose to second place on the New York Times bestseller list in March of that year, thereby helping solidify American support for the plan of the George H. W. Bush administration, in response to Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait the previous summer, to attack Iraq. And that – other than making a lot of money – was the book's purpose.
Sasson had proposed the idea of such a book to the Kuwaiti government, which was aggressively trying to convince Washington to attack Iraq on Kuwait's behalf. In pursuing this objective, Kuwait paid Hill and Knowlton (H&K), a well-connected public relations firm, close to $11,000,000 to sell the war.
At the center of the H&K campaign was the testimony of a 15-year-old Kuwaiti girl, going only by the name "Nayirah," who said that, after the Iraqis invaded her country, she worked as a volunteer in a hospital. "While I was there," she testified tearfully to the Congressional Human Rights Caucus on October 10, 1990:
This was pure fabrication. This girl, whose full name was Nayirah al-Sabah, was the daughter of Saud al-Sabah, Kuwait's ambassador to the United States, who was a good friend of President George H. W. Bush. Rather than having observed these events, she had been given these lines by H&K, which thereby earned the millions it was paid: "[O]f all the accusations made against [Saddam Hussein]," wrote MacArthur, "none had more impact on American public opinion" than this story of babies being ripped out of incubators.52
Evidently to garner still more support from the American public, Kuwait agreed not only to give Sasson a big advance on the book – which she reportedly wrote in nine days in order to get it published before the bombardment of Iraq began – but also to put up over $1 million to buy hundreds of thousands of copies of the book to get it on the New York Times list of bestselling books – a story that MacArthur told in "How Kuwait Duped The Times' Bestseller List."53
Calling The Rape of Kuwait "lurid and wildly inaccurate," MacArthur pointed out that it, among other things, "embellished on Nayirah's tall tale of atrocities."54 Also calling this book "a piece of propaganda financed by a foreign government with an interest in driving the United States into war," he characterized it as "154 pages of nonsense and lies."55
Sasson's next two books - entitled Princess: A True Story of Life Behind the Veil, and Princess: Sultana's Daughters – raised even more serious questions about Sasson's honesty. They were purportedly based on the diaries of a Saudi princess using the alias "Sultana," but they were almost certainly plagiarized.
A plagiarism suit was brought by Friederike Monika Adsani of London, originally from Austria, who provided evidence that these books had been plagiarized from her own book manuscript, "Cinderella in Arabia," which recounted her recently ended 23-year marriage to a wealthy Kuwaiti. Back in 1988, she said, she had sent this manuscript to Peter Miller, a New York literary agent, but he told her there was no chance of getting it published. In 1992, however, after Sasson's books had appeared, Adsani, seeing similarities between the experiences of Princess Sultana and her own and discovering that Peter Miller was Sasson's agent, charged that Sasson's manuscript had plagiarized her "Cinderella in Arabia."
A New York Times story about the lawsuit provided this summary of some of the similarities listed by Adsani and her lawyer:
Adsani's lawyer also had a statement by a professor of English, supported by 32 pages of examples, which said that "Princess and Sultana's Daughters are substantially similar to Monika Adsani's manuscript entitled Cinderella in Arabia." The lawyer had affidavits, furthermore, from a former US Ambassador to Saudi Arabia and from another expert on the country, both of whom said that Sasson's books contained so many obvious errors that they could not possibly have been based on diaries a Saudi princess.57 Adsani's lawyer even had a statement from the former CEO of Knightsbridge (which had published Sasson's first book, The Rape of Kuwait), who said that Peter Miller had approached him in 1990 about publishing "a non-fiction manuscript by a woman who he said had lived many years in the Gulf region," which "would be much more successful if it were published under Jean Sasson's name."58
It spite of such evidence, the judge took the side of the defense – which was representing not only Sasson and Miller but also some very powerful publishing corporations: William Morrow, Avon Books, the Hearst Corporation, and Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group. In 2001, Adsani's manuscript was published as Cinderella in Arabia: A Cross-Cultural Autobiography.58 The reviews on Amazon.com suggest the correctness of agent Peter Miller's reported belief that the story could be a commercial success only if rewritten by someone such as Jean Sasson. This does not change the fact, however, that it appears that Miller and Sasson got away with plagiarism.
In 2003, Sasson published Mayada, the supposed account of an Iraqi woman oppressed by Saddam's regime. In Soft Weapons, Gillian Whitlock used this book as a prime example of "propaganda generated through the veiled best-seller," which proved useful in "naturalizing aggressive military strategy as a benevolent intervention." During Sasson's promotional tour for the book, Whitlock added, she even personally "attested to the sight of advanced weaponry . . . in Iraq" and "assure[d] the American public that loyal Iraqis enthusiastically welcome occupying American troops as a liberating force."59
Finally, besides providing false propaganda about the Arab-Muslim world herself, Sasson also endorsed Norma Khouri's bestselling but totally fraudulent "memoir" about Jordan, Honor Lost (originally Forbidden Love), calling it a "true story."60
It would seem, therefore, that one looking for the truth should not trust anything that is found only in a Jean Sasson book, especially if it is something that might have propaganda value for the United States and its military allies.
Omar bin Laden: With regard to new information contained in the chapters of Growing Up Bin Laden that are attributed to Omar bin Laden, there is an additional reason to be skeptical of it: The circumstances behind this book suggest that he may have shaded the truth in order to aid his own cause.
In 2007, Omar, who already had a wife and a two-year old child, was married in Egypt to a British woman, Jane Felix-Browne, who took an Islamic name, Zaina Mohamed al-Sabah.61 Omar then applied for permission to move to England to live with her. But in April 2008, he received word that his application for a spousal immigration visa had been denied. The stated reason was that Omar had, in recent media interviews, indicated "continuing loyalty to [his] father," so that his presence in England might cause "public concern."62
Following this rebuff, apparently, Omar suggested to Jean Sasson that they collaborate on a book. "[D]uring the spring of 2008," she wrote in the book's Final Comments, she received an email letter from Omar saying that "he wanted me to reveal his personal story."63 In these comments, Sasson indicated that she had concerns about Omar that were similar to those of the British authorities:
In order for his autobiographical account to be acceptable to Sasson and also to change the attitude of the British authorities, therefore, it would need to show three things:
Press interviews prior to that time had given cause for doubt about all three points. With regard to the first point: His new wife, having said in 2007 that Omar "misses his father," added: "Omar doesn't know if it was his father who was responsible for the 9/11 attacks."65 Omar himself was quoted in April 2008 as saying that, although he condemned the 9/11 attacks, he could not condemn his father due to lack of evidence of his guilt: "Who can know 100 per cent that my father is behind 9/11? . . . I do not know if my father is a terrorist or was involved in the attacks."66
Lanjut: Bagian Kedua